Assigned Reading (Text):
pg 24-28: Papal authority, Charlemagne, Great Schism East and West
pg 32-36: Jews, Growth of Towns, Guilds
pg 38-41: Religious Reforms, Issues, HRE
pg 52-55: Babylonian Captivity, Great Schism, Reform
Further Research: Rules of St. Benedict / Difference between orthodox and Catholic
“In A Grove” Mystery: Read the following story “In A Grove” and with your team decide what happened and who did it and provide evidence that proves you are correct.
Social History – London: Watch the following video and be prepared to discuss in class
Politics – Monarchies During Medieval Europe:Listen to the Podcast and be ready to discuss in class
Focus on the following:
1)Identify each monarch and their family as well as the are they “ruled”
2) Identify why they are labeled “mad” and what might the cause/s be.
Assimilation into Catholicism: A look at slow indoctrination of Catholicism into Celtic Lore. The link is below.
Video on Plagues
Medieval Perspective On Jewish Culture/People: These will be examined in class a a precursor to The Black Plague. This will help you understand how to examine sources and look for POVs
Jewish knob pointed hat, England, 13th century
Glass window in St. John’s Church of Werben, Elbe River, Germany, circa 1450
A Jewish couple from Worms, Germany Worms, Germany, sixteenth century
Source: From a facsimile of Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremburg Chronicle or Buch der Chroniken, printed by Anton Koberger in 1493. Both the Buch der Chroniken and the facsimile are located at Kenyon College.
The story of The Jew’s Stone, Austria, 1462 (as recounted by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm)
In 1462 it so happened that in the Tyrol, in the village of Rinn, several Jews persuaded a poor farmer give up his little child, by paying him a lot of money. They took the child out into the forest and in the most horrible manner, martyred him there on a big stone, which is ever since called the “Judenstein” [“the Jewry-stone”]. The dead corpse they hung on a birch tree standing near a bridge. Now, the mother of the child was working in a field as the murder happened, and at once her thoughts turned to her child and without knowing why she became very afraid, and then, one after another, three fresh drops of blood fell on her hand. Full of anxiousness she hurried home and sought after her child. Her husband led her into the room and confessed what he had done. He wanted to show her the money which had released them from poverty, but it had all transformed into leaves. Then the father lost his mind and died of grief, but the mother went out to look for their little-child, and when she found it hanged on a tree, took it down with hot tears and carried it into the church in Rinn. And still the child lies there and is viewed by the people as a sacred child. The Judenstein was also brought there. It is said that a shepherd chopped down the tree on which the child had hanged, but when he wanted to take it to his home, he broke a leg and had to die.
A 1495 account by an Italian Jew regarding the expulsion of Jews from Spain
After the King had captured the city of Granada from the Moors he ordered the expulsion of all the Jews in all parts of his kingdom. One hundred and twenty thousand of them went to Portugal. This king acted much worse toward them than the King of Spain, and after six months had elapsed he made slaves of all those that remained in his country, and banished seven hundred children to a remote island to settle it, and all of the died. Many ships with Jews went to the city of Naples. The king of this country was friendly to the Jews, received them all, and was merciful toward them, and he helped them with money. The Marranos* in this city lent them money on pledges without interest; even the Dominican Brotherhood acted mercifully toward them.
Martin Luther, “On the Jews and Their Lies,” 1543
[The Jews] are nothing but thieves and robbers who daily eat no morsel and wear no thread of clothing which they have not stolen and pilfered from us by means of their accursed usury…I shall give you my sincere advice: First, to set fire to their synagogues or schools…Second, I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed…Third, I advise that all their prayer books and Talmudic writings…be taken from them…Fourth, I advise that their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb…Fifth, I advise that safe-conduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews…Sixth, I advise that usury be prohibited to them…they remain our daily murderers and bloodthirsty foes in their hearts. Their prayers and curses furnish evidence of that, as do the many stories which relate their torturing of children and all sorts of crimes for which they have often been burned at the stake or banished…let us emulate the common sense of other nations such as France, Spain, Bohemia, etc., compute with them how much their usury has extorted from us, divide this amicably, but then eject them forever from the country…so that you and we all can be rid of the unbearable, devilish burden of the Jews.
Voltaire, from “Tolerance” in Philosophical Dictionary 1764
If it were permitted to reason consistently in religious matters, it is clear that we all ought to become Jews, because Jesus Christ our Saviour was born a Jew, lived a Jew, died a Jew, and that he said expressly that he was accomplishing, that he was fulfilling the Jewish religion. But it is clearer still that we ought to be tolerant of one another, because we are all weak, inconsistent, liable to fickleness and error. Shall a reed laid low in the mud by the wind say to a fellow reed fallen in the opposite direction: “Crawl as I crawl, wretch, or I shall petition that you be torn up by the roots and burned?”